The Nature Conservancy

We’re helping protect the world’s largest free-ranging population of black rhino and providing jobs to communities in a virtuous cycle.

Namibia’s Kunene region represents one of the last true wildernesses in Africa — and a rare opportunity to conserve a vast desert ecosystem and enhance its people’s quality of life.

The frigid waters of the southern Atlantic collide with the world’s oldest desert, the Namib, along the infamous Skeleton Coast, named for countless shipwrecked sailors who perished among its baking dunes. The harsh Skeleton Coast gives life to many uniquely adapted animals and plants, many of which survive by siphoning precious moisture from sea fog.

Further inland lies Etosha National Park, one of the world’s largest wildlife refuges. The Etosha Pan, a dry lakebed left behind when the Kunene River changed course long ago, offers a fleeting oasis during the rainy season for myriad wildlife, including enormous flocks of flamingoes. But for most of the year, the park’s resident animals survive on waterholes fringing the pan.

The region’s community and government lands link Skeleton Coast and Etosha national parks to form one of the world’s largest conservation areas reaching across more than 15 million acres. The Kunene’s rocky desert, arid grasslands and dry riverbeds provide a sparsely populated corridor for iconic wildlife:

The desert-dwelling black rhinoceros finds its last free-ranging stronghold in the Kunene. A surprisingly agile mountaineer, the rhino often climbs onto ledges in search of succulent plants and cool Atlantic breezes.

Here also lives the massive desert elephant, led by herd matriarchs with intimate knowledge of the dunes’ scarce food and water sources. By digging waterholes during dry periods, these elephants may even help other animals survive.

Unlike other rhinos and elephants that drink daily, these desert-adapted animals may go three to four days without water.


Rampant poaching once took a heavy toll on the Kunene’s desert wildlife. In particular, black rhino and the desert elephant were pushed to the brink of extinction as the illegal trade of horns and tusks soared from the late 1970s to early 1980s.

At that time, a group of people concerned about the plight of these animals formed Save the Rhino Trust (SRT) and set out to stop the slaughter. With the support of Namibia — the Namibian government has some of the strongest natural resource management policies in Africa — the population has since rebounded and includes more than 200 today.

SRT provides security for wildlife and income for local people by employing community members as wildlife guards. And TNC’s support to SRT helps with a variety of work — from increasing protection for rhino and all other wildlife, to enhancing the capacity of community game scouts, and improving coordination with Namibia’s Ministry of Environment and Tourism. The Conservancy also provides strategic fundraising, technical advice, and serves as a science advisor to SRT.

Thanks to the strong, joint efforts of SRT, the Ministry of Environment and Tourism, law enforcement, local communities, and support from TNC, Namibia lost no rhino to poaching for two decades. But mounting threats from outside are putting Namibia’s strong conservation record in jeopardy.

While SRT is primarily focused on black rhino and mountain zebra, their work also helps protect a diversity of wildlife and ensures that local community conservancies have the capacity and training to monitor and protect these valuable species for their livelihood diversification and improvement.

Our history of success and diverse partnerships give us great hope for the future. Together, we can overcome the challenges ahead and improve the quality of life for Namibia’s people, protect its wildlife, and conserve one of the most extraordinary landscapes on Earth.